Impressionism in the American South

Impressionism, imported from France in the late 19th-century, was the first injection of abstraction into mainstream American art. It came ashore with artists who had been exposed to this revolutionary style while training in Paris and painting in the countryside.  The eastern United States fortified this first wave of Impressionism, which then traveled successfully across the continent. 

The South became a popular destination for American Impressionistic painters because of its unique combination  of light and historic architecture. It was common for an artist to take up residence in places like New Orleans, Charleston, and St. Augustine while producing works that rivaled those of their European comrades.  Here are just a few of the pieces that are representative of that late 19th century and early 20th century movement.



Alson Skinner Clark was from the Northeast, but after studying in Paris in the 1890’s, he settled in Charleston, where he captured the essence of the historic South Carolina city.


Alson Skinner Clark                 Catfish Row

Catfish Row, as the African-American waterfront district was called, was one of his favorite subjects.


Anthony Thieme    Sunlight and Shadows

Thieme was a noted impressionist of coastal New England scenes, but after his studio was destroyed by fire in 1946, he traveled south to Charleston, South Carolina and was greatly inspired by the dense tropical foliage and the warm coastal light. He spent two months in Charleston, painting prolifically, before continuing on to Florida, the Caribbean, and Central America. Until his mysterious death in 1954, Thieme spent his summers in Rockport and the winter months based in St. Augustine, Florida.

anthony thieme 2

Anthony Thieme               Negro Cabins


Anthony Thieme     Southern Doorways

Emma Lampert cooper 1

Emma Lampert Cooper                      Courtyard, Beaufort, South Carolina

                                     Female artists also found the Low Country to be irresistible.

charles whitfield richards 1Charles Whitfield Richards

alfred-hutty-saint-philip-s-church-216275Alfred Heber Hutty     St. Phillip’s Church

The most prolific of the Charleston Impressionists was Alfred Heber Hutty, who was considered to be a leading figure in the Charleston Renaissance. Alfred Hutty began his painting career in Woodstock, NY, where he developed a traditional impressionistic painting style while training with tonalist landscape painter Birge Harrison (1854-1929). Although he rejected emerging modernist trends, Hutty experimented with many media, including etching, lithography, drypoint, murals, and sculpture. While making his first of many extended trips to Charleston, South Carolina, in February 1920, Hutty discovered rich subject matter including plantations, gardens, old churches, and historic homes. Hutty’s delicate pencil drawings and etchings of the city streets became his most celebrated images. Considered an artist-tourist, Hutty’s images of Charleston reveal an important interaction and relationship with the place. Some of his work is considered contradictory, presenting a nostalgic but also critical view of southern culture and the dilapidated historic architecture he encountered.

hawthorne-hutty-charleston-street-sceneAlfred Heber Hutty


Alfred Heber Hutty       Low Country Marsh


Elizabeth O’Neill Verner                Pink House on Chalmers Street 

Elizabeth O’Neill Verner (1883-1979) was born and raised in Charleston and is perhaps the best known artist of the Charleston Renaissance, a movement of southern realist painters working in the first half of the twentieth century.


Elizabeth O’Neill Verner                                         Avenue at The Oaks 



William Gilbert Gaul                             Looking Out to Sea

A native of Jersey City, New Jersey, William Gilbert Gaul became largely identified with the South and portrayals of the Civil War.


William Gilbert Gaul                     Glorious Fighting

In 1881, he inherited a farm in Van Buren County, Tennessee, from his mother’s family. He lived on the farm for four years to fulfill the terms of the bequest. During this period, he painted pastoral landscapes, rural genre scenes, and remembrances of the recent American conflict. His war paintings are characterized by a dramatic appeal and strong academic technique while his genre scenes often hinge on a poignant or sentimental depiction of a single figure.


William Gilbert Gaul                 Farm in Van Buren, Tennessee


William Gilbert Gaul                                Cottage in the Woods

St. Augustine


George Street in Rain      Anthony Thieme


Harold S. Maddocks                             Spuds


Richard E. Miller                                         St. Augustine Afternoon Tea

Roberta Jennings

Roberta Jennings                       Bridge of Lions, St. Augustine

New Orleans

With such a strong French history, New Orleans was the subject of many impressionistic paintings, not the least of which was by the French master, Edgar Degas.  His mother and grandmother were both born in New Orleans.


Edgar Degas                     The Cotton Office

cotton merchants

Edgar Degas                                     Cotton Merchants


Edgar Degas                              Estelle Flower Arrangement, New Orleans

William Woodward

William Woodward                    Napoleon House in New Orleans   1904

In 1821, Nicolas Girod, former Mayor of New Orleans, supposedly hatched a plot, along with notorious French pirate, turned reputable citizen, Jean Lafitte, to rescue the disgraced Emperor Napoleon from his St. Helena exile, and bring him to New Orleans. Word of the emperor’s death on St. Helena reached New Orleans just as Girod was preparing to embark. Napoleon House was furnished to please a despotic Bonaparte in a democratic America.



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